RF Knowledge Base Articles

How to access device keys – LoRaWAN
Device EUITo see the Device EUI:1. Log in to your X-ON account2. Navigate to the Device Tab in Network Module from the left side menu 3. Choose the application from the dropdown menu 4. D...
Jul 01, 2021
Managing a Client Device Profile - LoRaWAN
IntroductionClient Device Profiles are used to manage the authentication and data details of LoRaWAN client devices. Client devices must be pre-configured on the X-ON platform before they can wirel...
Jul 01, 2021
Provisioning Application - LoRaWAN Devices/Gateways
IntroductionProvisioning Application is used to provision devices/gateways between accounts. Devices/Gateways should be the first factory provisioned and they will be added to the database. Only de...
Jul 01, 2021
LoRaWAN Device Developer Kit(HXC Dev Shield) - Developer Guide
Introduction This guide provides an over of the LoRaWAN Device Developer Kit and an introduction to the X-ON cloud IoT platform and LoRaWAN. The Developer kit will provide examples for sensors gen...
Jun 30, 2021
XBee 3 Cellular LTE-M/NB-IoT modem not registering to the network or will not connect
Why is my XBee 3 Cellular LTE-M/NB-IoT modem not connecting or completing the registration process? One of the first things to check is to make sure that you have set the APN value for the SIM Car...
May 05, 2021
XBee3 Telit cellular firmware update FOTA through Digi Remote Manager fails after first upgrade
In summary, the first stage upgrade works, based on inspection via XCTU, but then it does not connect to the Digi Remote Manager anymore so one cannot perform the second stage upgrade. DO on ...
Feb 03, 2021
XBee over-the-air (OTA) firmware update using the XCTU
Updating firmware over the air (OTA) via X-CTU: 1. Add a network radio to XCTU. Put this radio into API mode 1 (AP=1) and BAUD rate of 115200 (BD=7) to speed up further steps.    &n...
Oct 01, 2020
Memory Management in MicroPython
The available memory allocated for MicroPython can be found on the product's specification page: https://www.digi.com/products/embedded-systems/digi-xbee/rf-modules/2-4-ghz-rf-modules/xbee...
Sep 04, 2020
XBee 3 Cellular APN values for the Telus and Bell in Canada
Here are some common APN values used by Telus and Bell for Canada that can be used with the Digi XBee 3 Cellular modules:TELUS production SIM MCC/MNC: 302/220APN:APN Requirement APN Profile NameA...
Mar 30, 2020
Industrial Gateway Data Usage is much higher than expected
Typical data use-cases that involve a sensor with an XBee Industrial Gateway may be about 1-3 MB/month of data. If the actual usage ends up being closer to 10-15 MB a month this can ...
Mar 30, 2020
XBee 3 – Secure Session SRP randomization
Digi International Security NoticeSecure Session SRP ephemeral values are not randomized if BLE is disabled Digi International Security NoticeMarch 2, 2020Overview The purpose of this notice ...
Mar 05, 2020
u-blox Memory Housekeeping Issue on XBee3 Cat M Cellular
Overviewu-blox has informed Digi of an issue for SARA-R410M-02B using previous firmware version L0. app version A.02.00. A new firmware release is available (L0. app versi...
Feb 23, 2020
Digi XBee Industrial Gateway SSH Error During ESP Build
 Digi ESP for Python - XBee Industrial Gateway * If you are using the XBee Industrial Gateway follow the instructions below. It is mandatory to start Digi ESP for Python as Administ...
Feb 23, 2020
ZigBee OTA Firmware Update information
Overview ZigBee for S2C firmware includes support to update module firmware over-the-air. This feature allows a single device to update firmware on all other devices in the network. Over-the-air u...
Feb 03, 2020
Enabling Bluetooth Functionality on a Remote Network
To enable the Bluetooth communication on your wider Digi XBee network you would need to send remote AT command frames to set the BT (Bluetooth Enable) parameter. You can then send the Salt and Ver...
Jan 08, 2020
Required Shutdown Procedures for XBee Cellular Radios
WARNING! Improper shutdown of the modem may result in the underlying cellular module becoming irrecoverably unresponsive.    It is not recommended to remove power from the XBee Cellular...
Nov 26, 2019
XBee Zigbee Notice - Keys can be sent in the clear
Digi International Security NoticeTransport Key sent “In the Clear”October 9, 2019 OverviewThe purpose of this notice is to inform our customers of a security vulnerability regardi...
Nov 25, 2019
XBee interface board pull-up resistors
The XBIB and Grove XBee Interface boards have pull-up resistors that can override the internal pull-up resistor IO pin settings of the XBee module. This is most commonly seen on pins 5, 6, 7, 8, an...
Nov 22, 2019
Grove XBee interface board battery connector
The external battery connector on the Grove XBee Interface board is not fully functional. The FTDI chip is not powered via the external battery connector, and thus acts as a ground, so any XBee pin...
Nov 22, 2019
Digi 3rd Party Chinese Radios
Question: Has Digi in the past, or currently, used any components purchased from the following companies? •    Huawei •    ZTE Corp •   &n...
Oct 21, 2019
Unique Default Passwords for Digi Products (SB-327)
BackgroundAs of January 1, 2020, the California Consumer Privacy Act SB-327 requires all cellular and internet connected devices manufactured after that date to have unique default passwo...
Oct 16, 2019
SACK Vulnerability Patch Status
SACK Vulnerability Patch Status for affected Digi products  Product Family/ProductVersion fix is included inEstimated Release DateCellularDigi IX1419.8Aug, 2019Digi EX1519.8Aug, 2019Digi LR54...
Jul 16, 2019
XBee Cellular with Digi Remote Manager firmware upgrades
How do you perform a firmware upgrade via an RCI request on an XBee Cellular module?First, it should be noted that not all firmware updates will be possible or recommended via the Digi Remote Manag...
Jan 24, 2018
XBee Cellular Antennas
For optimal performance with the XBee Cellular module, the antennas should be placed perpendicular to each other and not touching. For parallel placement, Digi recommends to have the antennas ...
Oct 10, 2017
How to Enter the Python Engine with the XBee Cellular module
The XBee Cellular module supports Python directly within its firmware. To enable this function, set the AT AP command to a value of 4 <carriage return>. Then enter ATCN to exit command mode. ...
Sep 28, 2017
Digi Mesh Synchronous sleeping network
The following provides a basic sleeping network using the proprietary Digi Mesh protocol. For this example I am going to use a synchronous sleeping network with a always-on Sleep Support module usi...
Sep 28, 2017
Zigbee 3.0 Security
Skip to end of metadatao start of metadataZigbee 3.0 SecurityZigbee security protects network traffic using 128-bit AES cryptography techniques. A standard security model is defined for supporting ...
Sep 20, 2017
XBee Cellular module with 3rd party interface boards
Can I use a 3rd party interface board such as the Sparkfun Explorer or Adafruit's XBee Adapter with the XBee Cellular Modules?No. The 3rd party boards are not designed to provide the nearly 1A of c...
Sep 15, 2017
Firmware Support for XBee-PRO XSC Hardware
Firmware support for XBee-PRO XSC modules can vary according to the hardware revision letter shown on each module.XBee modules with revision G and earlier only support "XBee-PRO XSC (S3B)" firmware...
Sep 11, 2017
Compatibility between XBee S1 and XBee S2C modules
Yes, the S1 and the S2C are compatible when running the 802.15.4 protocol.  The legacy modules S2 and S2B are not compatible with the S1 but are still Zigbee compatible with the S2C. The ...
Aug 30, 2017
The Digi Smart Plug device is not seen or discovered on the Coordinator
The Digi Smart Plug device is not seen or discovered on the Coordinator When a coordinator is unable to the Digi Smart Plug, we recommend pressing the small button located on the side of the Sma...
Jul 06, 2017
Mechanical drawing of Interface Boards for Radio Modules
Here are the mechanical drawings for our different interface boards for some Digi Radios. Relevant FilesXStream SPKGXIB-EXIB-RXIB-UXBIB-R (Rev. A)XBIB-U (Rev. A)XBIB-U (Rev. 3A)XTIB-RXTIB-U
Jul 06, 2017
Using an RJ45 Adapter to Connect to a DB9 Connector
In some situations it is necessary to interface the RS232 or RS485 signals to RJ45, terminal strips or other physical connections. The Digi radio modem has the RS232 and RS485/422 signals available...
Jul 06, 2017
Digi API Frame Maker
The Digi API Frame Maker can be used to generate API packets for use on Digi's wireless networks.Java is required.Download the Digi API Frame Maker here. You will also find the functionality ...
Jul 06, 2017
End User License Agreement (EULA) for XCTU
Here is the End User License Agreement text that appears during the installation of X-CTU: End-User License Agreement for Digi X-CTU Software Important! Read Carefully: By installing the softwa...
Jul 06, 2017
Removing unused COM Ports from Windows
Whenever a new USB serial device is plugged into a PC, Windows will assign the device a new, unique COM Port number. This could even happen if the same device is plugged into a different USB port...
Jul 06, 2017
How to find out the date code and manufacturing location information of Digi Products.
Depending on the location the units are built effects the orientation, linked below is the date code from USA or Thailand. The date code is 4 digits, 2 digit year and 2 digit week (YYWW) so in thes...
Jul 06, 2017
Is my third party RF radio compatible with Digi XBee modules?
Is my third party RF radio compatible with Digi XBee modules?So long as the third party device is Zigbee capable, it should work with Digi XBee modules.It is important to have matching Zigbee sta...
Jul 06, 2017
How to access FCC test reports
All of the FCC test reports for Digi’s RF line of products can be found on the FCC webpage as long as the FCC ID is known. The following steps will guide you through the process of searching the FC...
Jul 06, 2017
Connecting an XBee reset line to a microcontroller
Due to the fact that many Digi RF products require the Reset line to be pulled low as an open collector, we suggest to never drive the reset line high for cross compatibility.  Some of the microp...
Jul 06, 2017
An introduction to SPI on XBee radios
Download this article in a printable format   IntroductionPurpose and Scope The purpose of this document is to specify how SPI is implemented on the XBee product line. It can be used by tec...
Jul 06, 2017
XBee/RF Module Intrinsic Safety
XBee/RF Module Intrinsic SafetyDigi radio modems have been integrated into many products that are used in hazardous environments. For electronic equipment to be used in environments with combusti...
Jul 06, 2017
RF Interference
RF Interference Radios communicate by creating and detecting electromagnetic waves. Radios that are designed to communicate with each other are usually tuned to transmit and receive waves of a ...
Jul 06, 2017
XBee Antenna Options
XBee Antenna Options Antennas are the radiating element in a radio frequency communication system and work by focusing the broadcasted energy. There are several common types of antennas includi...
Jul 06, 2017
RF Range Testing
RF Range TestingWith the many different types of environments and obstacles that can affect radio communication, in most installations it is a good idea to conduct some sort of site survey to ens...
Jul 06, 2017
Cellular Interface with Digi XBee/RF Modems
Q. Has the possibility of RF Interference from cell phones operating in the 2.4GHz and 900 MHz band been investigated?A. All Radios are designed to transmit or receive electromagnetic waves at a pa...
Jul 06, 2017
FCC Modular Approval
FCC Modular ApprovalQ. What does FCC modular approval of your module get me? Does that mean that I don’t have to do any FCC testing at all?A. Well first, let’s define what the FCC is and what the...
Jul 06, 2017
Selecting the Right Frequency with XBee Products
As radio waves travel the radio signals gradually lose energy. The higher the frequency of transmission, the quicker the radio wave will lose energy down to a point where it cannot be detected by a...
Jul 06, 2017
What can cause low RSSI signal?
What can cause low RSSI signal?The RSSI for both cellular and XBee are dependent on a clean Fresnel zone.  The Fresnel zone is an invisible and roughly football-shaped region between two point...
Jul 06, 2017
802.11g WiFi (2.4GHz) vs. XPress Ethernet Bridge (900MHz)
Speed vs. Range 802.11g''''s primary function is to transfer data at high speeds (54 Mbps over-the-air and 35 Mbps streaming) at a short range (<300 ft indoors). For long di...
Jul 06, 2017
XBee & RF Module Feature Comparison Matrix
What: XBee & RF Module Feature Comparison MatrixWhy: One stop shopping to quickly make a module selection and to understand feature differences.Where: On all Digi.com RF Module product pages an...
Jul 06, 2017
Antenna Selection for 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz Modules
Antenna Selection for 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz ModulesAntennas make wireless communications more efficient by focusing the broadcasted energy. When selecting antennas for your application, it is impor...
Jul 06, 2017
Data Integrity and Received Signal Strength
Data Integrity and Received Signal StrengthAll Digi radios have the ability to detect and report the received signal strength of incoming packets. Normally, the received signal strength indicati...
Jul 06, 2017
Repeater functionality in Firmware
Digi has developed firmware which will allow the XStream and XTend modems to act as repeaters. Repeaters can be used in a wireless network using the XStream or XTend Radio Modems to extend range...
Jul 06, 2017
Antenna and cable impedance
Digi RF products are engineered to drive a 50 ohm load. All RF cables or antennas attached to the antenna connector should provide a 50 ohm match.Ensure that the cable being used is rated for the f...
Jul 06, 2017
XTend Temperature Performance
The 9XTend radio is a 1 Watt Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum radio. The FCC and Canadian agencies have limited the amount of power that radio can broadcast in the 902 -928 MHz ISM band. While ...
Jul 06, 2017
ZigBee Encryption
ZigBee supports the 128-bit AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) encryption to encrypt data on a ZigBee network. Following are answers to frequently asked questions regarding encryption on ZigBee ...
Jul 06, 2017
The AT Command Set
The AT command set, also known as the Hayes command set, was originally developed for use with the Hayes modems in the 1980s. Many modern dialup modems are still based around this standard. The ter...
Jul 06, 2017
Does Digi provide sample code for accessing the radio's UART?
Digi does not provide sample code. All Digi radios are designed to operate transparently with existing products. The application or device simply needs to be able to read and write to the UART o...
Jul 06, 2017
RoHS Certificate of Compliance
RF Products as of 1 June, 2013 The wireless devices identified in this certificate are in compliance with the European Union Directive 2011/65/EU on the restricted use of certain hazardous substanc...
Jul 06, 2017
Adaptors for Host Serial Connections
Serial RS232/485 communication through a DB9 connector is the most common interface for Digi radios. Many PCs have a limited number of serial ports from which to connect peripherals, and often t...
Jul 06, 2017
Using Digi Cellular Gateways as Backhaul for Digi Wireless Networks
 This application note discusses the benefits of combining Digi cellular gateways/routers with Digi wireless networking products to create integrated, low cost end-to-end wireless data connect...
Jul 06, 2017
Modbus Protocol
Modbus is a serial protocol commonly used in industrial automation applications. Digi XTend radio modems support Modbus-ASCII and Modbus-RTU with no special configuration. In fact, the radio mod...
Jul 06, 2017
XBee Cyclic Sleep Example: Indirect Messaging
Sleep modes can be used to effectively reduce power consumption and extend battery life. Indirect messaging is one way in which the XBee family of radios can conserve power through periodic slee...
Jul 06, 2017
Antennas - An Introductory Guide
This white paper is intended as a guide to understanding how antennas transmit and receive electromagnetic waves. An explanation of what electromagnetic waves are, and how they travel will be di...
Jul 06, 2017
Low Voltage Interface to OEM RF Module (3.3V)
Digi offers several options for interfacing to a low voltage (3.3V) system or a 5V system. The simplest option is to use either the 3V XBee or a 9XTend OEM modules which supports a flexible input ...
Jul 06, 2017
Part number for the barrel type power connector
Digi uses a 2.1mm ID / 5.5mm OD female barrel power connector plug with center positive to connect power to all interface boards and PKG products. These plugs are very common and readily available ...
Jul 06, 2017
Maximizing range
This document introduces the basics of a wireless communications system and explains how to maximize range when commissioning a system. It explains how to install radios, antennas and cables in a...
Jul 06, 2017
How to properly ground a radio modem to protect from lightning
Following are some general guidelines for grounding a Digi PKG radio modem when the modem, antenna, conduit, or any component of the communication system is likely to be hit with a lightning strike...
Jul 06, 2017
Full-duplex data transfer over radio modems
Full-duplex refers to a system which transmits and receives data in two directions at the same time. The telephone system is full-duplex as one can talk and listen simultaneously. A walkie-talki...
Jul 06, 2017
Does the radio modem interfere with other circuits on the PCB?
Digi RF Modules produce a very small amount of noise. All Digi radio modems have been tested and certified to comply with the FCC part 15 regulations which measure the interference that the radio...
Jul 06, 2017
Connecting two or more serial devices to one radio modem
Is it possible to connect two serial port devices to just one radio modem? Answer: Yes, use a serial multiplexer to send multiple serial streams through one radio pair.
Jul 06, 2017
Low Latency for Xtend and XStream Digi Radio Modules
Digi radio modems are extremely easy to use. The default mode of operation is a transparent mode allowing the modems to replicate an RS232 or RS485 serial cable between the connected devices. The o...
Jul 06, 2017
Department of Defense Form 1494 (DD 1494)
When installing radio systems on a military base or other Department of Defense sites it is necessary to obtain equipment certification from the National Telecommunications and Information Admini...
Jul 06, 2017
What conformal coating material is used on the industrial rated radios?
* Note:This information only applies to XStream, XCite, and some older, specific XTend radios. Digi Industrial rated radio modules are coated using a 3 step process that was developed to ensure r...
Jul 06, 2017
How to mechanically secure RF module
The XStream, XCite, and XBee RF modules do not have mounting holes through the PC board so we have suggested several other methods for securing the module: Position the module in the housing so...
Jul 06, 2017
XBee firmware revision history and identification
XBee ZigBee (Series 2) Firmware Identification XBee ZigBee firmware version numbers will have 4 significant digits. All numbers are hexadecimal and can have a range from 0-F. A version can be ...
Jul 06, 2017
Using the explicite transmit frame to support ZDOs (ZigBee Device Objects) in the XBee API.
The ZigBee Device Profile is a management and discovery service layer supported on all ZigBee devices. Like all other profiles, the ZigBee Device Profile defines a set of clusters that can be use...
Jul 06, 2017
Sending data through an 802.15.4 network latency timing
How long does it take to send data through an 802.15.4 network? Digi's XBee Series 1 radio modules run 802.15.4 firmware, which allows them to transmit data in a point-to-point, peer-to-pe...
Jul 06, 2017
Debugging joining in a XBee ZigBee ZB network using the AI command.
In a ZigBee network, routers and end devices must discover and join a network before they can communicate with other ZigBee devices. The XBee ZB firmware includes a number of AT commands that can...
Jul 06, 2017
Linux TCPIP driver source code for Digi wireless serial modems
       Digi modems feature a simple serial interface. Sending data through the wireless link is as simple as sending data through a comm port so in most applications you can...
Jul 06, 2017
Using Digi radios in multidrop networks
In multidrop applications it is necessary that information coming from one serial port be received by multiple remote devices. This is commonly implemented using RS485 multidrop bus wiring. Multi...
Jul 06, 2017
Can I convert an XBee/XBee-PRO ZNET 2.5 Module to a ZB Module?
Can I Convert an XBee/XBee-PRO ZNet 2.5 Module to a ZB Module?Yes, and there is no charge. Download the ZNet 2.5 to ZB Conversion Kit here. Please contact Support if you have any questions.
Jul 06, 2017
Using Digi Radios With the HART Protocol
The HART protocol is an industrial communications protocol that provides 2-way digital communications. The HART protocol can be operated in a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint configuration. ...
Jul 06, 2017
Loopback repeater and buffer sizes
The loopback mode (store and forward) repeater will work with all versions of firmware on all Digi radio modems. It is important to keep in mind, though, that the Data In (DI) buffer size on our ...
Jul 06, 2017
Peer-to-Peer FHSS
Digi has a revolutionary method of synchronizing the radio modules in a network that does not require the use of a master or server. This technology allows for very robust communications even in ...
Jul 06, 2017
Weather proof antennas
The half-wave antennas that ship with Digi PKG products are not weatherproof and should not be installed outdoors. Digi offers an antenna that is less susceptible to weather because it does not hav...
Jul 06, 2017
How to Calculate Transmission Range of Radios - Free Space Loss Calculator
While practical range testing is a preferred method to determine range, theoretical mathematical formulas can be used to predict the transmission range of Digi radios through freespace. This is the...
Jul 06, 2017
Class 1 Division 2 Environments and Digi's RF
Why purchase a product with the certification? Having a product with any of the hazardous certifications allows you the ability to offer or place a wide range of products (PLC''''s...
Jul 06, 2017
Vendor IDentification (VID)
While the proprietary frequency hopping modulation and the number of networks and addresses can make it very difficult for an outsider to eavesdrop on communication, it would be possible for anothe...
Jul 06, 2017
Using X-CTU to Load a Profile into Module in a Production Environment
Use these directions for starting X-CTU (XCTU) with command line options. This feature may be used to solve a variety of problems including: Configure the modules with a certain set of paramete...
Jul 06, 2017
X-CTU (XCTU) software
Digi has developed X-CTU, which is software used for configuring and testing Digi RF products modems. Features: Support for all Digi products. Integrated terminal window. Easy to use loopb...
Jul 06, 2017
How to update firmware in modules
Follow these instructions for updating the firmware in Digi RF radio modems:Install latest version of XCTU on your system. Its installer can be download for free from here: https://www.digi.co...
Jul 06, 2017
How to configure packetizing control
Is there a way to force the radio modem RF packets to match the protocol packets sent to it? Yes, there are 3 commands that control how and when incoming data is packetized before transmitting over...
Jul 06, 2017
Data rate requirement of ETSI 300 328 standard
Question:According to your web site, Digi meets European ETSI standards. My understanding is that in order to meet ETSI standards, the RF data rate must exceed 250 kbps. The 2.4 Ghz 19.2K baud rate...
Jul 06, 2017
Restore modem defaults using HyperTerminal
If you are unable to communicate with a modem, it is a good idea to try restoring the module defaults. The easiest way to do this is by using the XIB-R (XIBR) interface board or PKG-R (PKGR) prod...
Jul 06, 2017
The power of receiver sensitivity
What is receiver sensitivity and why is it important? The attached whitepaper explores the Friis transmission equation and what it takes to double the range of a wireless communication system. ...
Jul 06, 2017
Upgrading RF Modem modules to the latest firmware using X-CTU
Digi radio modems support field firmware upgrades. The upgrade process requires the Digi interface board (supplied in a development kit or a PKG product) and a PC with a Windows OS.One of the reaso...
Jul 06, 2017
Temperature Rating of Digi accessories
Following are the temperature ratings of some Digi products and accessories: Description Product Operating Temp Storage Temp (2.1dBi) Articulating, RPSMA antenna A09-HASM-...
Jul 06, 2017
Vibration and shock testing and performance
We have had several inquiries about how well the Digi radio modems perform in high vibration environments. Digi has not conducted any vibration analysis tests on our own products. However, our cust...
Jul 06, 2017
Configuring the modems for reliable delivery (acknowledgements)
With any radio communication system it is important to plan for data corruption to take place because of the harsh RF environment and interference.There are 3 ways that applications deal with data ...
Jul 06, 2017
Digi compatibility with the Echelon Lonworks system
Digi has customers who reported that the Digi radio modems do work with the Echelon Lonworks system. From what we understand, Echelon/Lonworks to RS232 converters are needed to interface to the RS2...
Jul 06, 2017
Using Port Monitoring Software for Troubleshooting
Some integrators who start with a working hard-wired application may find they are not successful when substituting the radios for the wired connection. The best troubleshooting approach is to isol...
Jul 06, 2017
Auxiliary Supply Voltage to Digi Radios
Digi radio interface boards are configured to supply voltage through the standard barrel jack or pin 9 of the DB9 connector. Below, one will find instructions on how to supply voltage through pin...
Jul 06, 2017
Which Radio Does Digi Recommend for Wireless Video Applications?
The XPress Ethernet Bridge (XEB) is well-suited for video applications that require longer range distance (1000ft non-line of sight) using medium or low video resolution and medium or low frame r...
Jul 06, 2017
Reliability: Introduction to how addressing and retries work
In most communication systems, it is desirable for data not only to reach the destination, but also for the data to arrive in a reliable and consistent manner. In general, wireless communication...
Jul 06, 2017
Point to Multipoint--broadcasting or polling
There are several ways to configure a point-to-multipoint polling system. The XStream, XCite, XTend, 802.15.4 and DigiMesh modules come default in a peer-to-peer broadcast mode where if any radio...
Jul 06, 2017
Request For Quote (RFQ) for performing custom work requests
Because of Digi's excellent engineering department and superior products, we frequently get requests to customize existing products or to develop new products to meet special application requir...
Jul 06, 2017
Application Note - XBee Antennas
This document presents practical information regarding the performance of the XBee and XBee-PRO RF Modules. The focus will be on the attributes of the different antenna options that are available...
Jul 06, 2017
Transmission distance over water
Digi always recommends testing the modules in the actual environment to determine the range of the final product. Because every environment is different, the Digi specified communication range is...
Jul 06, 2017
Indoor wireless signal loss
This document contains background information about link margin and link budget calculations. It also includes a table showing how much signal attenuation will occur when transmitting at 900 MHz ...
Jul 06, 2017
Can We Privately Label Digi International RF Modem Products?
Does Digi International allow OEMs to resell Digi International radio frequency (RF) modems without the Digi International label? Digi International offers a private labeling program that provid...
Jul 06, 2017
Differences between XIB-R and SPKG
The XIB-R (XIBR) serial interface board has replaced the SPKG interface board. Here are the major differences between the two interface boards: The XIB-R has DIP switches for selecting RS232 an...
Jul 06, 2017
Recommended Sleep Current Measurements
Recommended Sleep Current MeasurementsProper measurement of sleep current is often a needed step to accurately estimate battery life requirements.  Special steps need to happen in order to ensure p...
Jul 06, 2017
Line of Sight (LOS) and High-Gain Antennas
Will a high gain antenna help transmit through obstacles if the radio path is non-line-of-sight (non-LOS)? When speaking about radios and line-of-sight, it must be understood that visual LOS a...
Jul 06, 2017
Is RSSI the best indication of link quality?
One thing to keep in mind is that the RSSI is only an indication of the RF energy detected at the antenna port. The power level reported could be artificially high because it may include energy fro...
Jul 06, 2017
Interact with Programmable XBee using the legacy version of XCTU
The following is for the older XCTU versions. Your programmable XBee needs to be put into bypass mode before the XCTU can talk to the Ember radio on the module. Programmable XBees have two processo...
Jul 06, 2017
dBi vs. dBd summary
dBi and dBd are used to measure the focusing power (gain) of antennas. Digi specifies all antennas in dBi only.dBi is a measurement that compares the gain of an antenna with respect to an isotropic...
Jul 06, 2017
Antenna Gain: dBi vs. dBd Decibel Detail
Antenna gain is measured in either dBi or dBd. It is important to note that antenna gain is different than amplifier gain. Antennas do not have a power source that allows the antenna to create a...
Jul 06, 2017
Integrated wire antenna
Digi modules are available with a 1/4 wave integrated wire antenna which is the most economical antenna option available. This option requires the module to be mounted inside a non-metal housing ...
Jul 06, 2017
Parity settings on module
Data formats supported by Digi radio modems are as follows: By data format we are referring to the number of data bits(B), type of parity(P): Even, Odd, Mark, Space or None (E, O, M, S or N) and n...
Jul 06, 2017
Should I use a 1/4 wave or 1/2 wave antenna?
What is the difference between a ½-wave and a ¼-wave antenna?  Antenna Type                         ½-wav...
Jul 06, 2017
Does a 1/4 wave antenna need a ground plane?
Does a 1/4 wave antenna need a ground plane? Answer: Yes. All 1/4 wave antennas work best if they are installed in the center of a metal ground plane with at least 1/4 wave length radius (1/2 wa...
Jul 06, 2017
Does a 1/2 wave antenna need a ground plane?
Does a 1/2 wave antenna need a ground plane?  Answer: No. The 1/2 wave antenna (also called a dipole antenna) is built of two 1/4 wave elements that interact with one another to launch the elect...
Jul 06, 2017
Wiring to terminal block by cutting DB9 cable
How do you wire RS232 or RS485 radio modems to a terminal block when the signals are available only on the DB9 connector? The easiest method is to cut the DB9 straight through serial cable suppl...
Jul 06, 2017
Flow Control
Serial flow control is used to prevent buffer overruns. When a host microprocessor is shifting data into the radio modem''''s serial buffer, if the buffer is getting full the radi...
Jul 06, 2017
PKG-U (PKGU) USB RF Modem Driver Files
How do I install and use the PKG-U product?Download the PKGU ( USB ) windows driver files from the Relevant Files below.Extract the contents of the zip file to a temporary directory.Plug in the USB...
Jul 06, 2017
Minimum seperation distance between antennas and nearby persons
Digi RF products are FCC approved for use in fixed base station and mobile applications. As long as the antenna is mounted at least 20cm (8in) from nearby persons, the application is considered a m...
Jul 06, 2017
Wireless CAN (Controller Area Network)
The CAN (Controller Area Network) serial protocol was originally designed to be used for communication between sensors and computers in automotive applications. Since its inception it has grown t...
Jul 06, 2017
Digi makes many serial devices, some of which are DTE (PortServer TS, EtherLite, Connect/ConnectPort, Digi One, USB-to-serial), and others which are DCE (TransPort, PKG RF modems, XBIB interface bo...
Jul 06, 2017
What does "Galvanically isolated from Earth ground" mean?
"Galvanically isolated" is a term used to describe the relation between two different points in a circuit.It means that the ASYNC Signal Ground (SG) is isolated from earth ground, by virtue of...
Jul 06, 2017
Zigbee Wifi Coexistence (802.15.4 Protocol and 802.11 protocol)
Zigbee Wifi Coexistence (802.15.4 Protocol and 802.11 protocol) Well-accepted wireless communication technologies generally operate in frequency bands that are shared among several users, oft...
Jul 06, 2017
RF Connector Identification Chart
Common connector types used in RF communication.Digi RF modems commonly use RP-SMA and RP-TNC connector types.  Typical RF modules use RP-SMA, U.FL, MMCX.Outdoor connectors commonly used on antenna...
Jul 06, 2017
General Certification Comments on Digi products
Check the main reference manual for the given Digi product.  Generally they have a section marked 'Certification'.  If the certification in question is not seen there it is most l...
Jul 06, 2017
Frequency Usage Table by Products
Each Digi radio modem uses as little of the available RF spectrum as possible so as to minimize susceptibility to interference from other RF systems as well as to minimize the impact of Digi transm...
Jul 06, 2017
XLR 64 bit Addressing - Ethernet RF Bridging
The purpose of Ethernet RF bridging is to act as an Ethernet cable replacement. The MAC/PHY layerof the Ethernet standard handles all Ethernet traffic. As a result, the XLR PRO does not have to hav...
Jul 06, 2017
Understanding DCE & DTE connections
All RS232 devices that use a DB-9 connector should conform to the standard TIA/EIA-574. The device should be either DCE or DTE. DCE devices should have a female DB-9 connector, and DTE devices shou...
Jul 06, 2017
How to connect an XTend/XStream to an SMA Inverter and WebBox
* Please refer to the following documents for more information about pinouts and cabling:SMA documents:Sunny WebBox Product ManualSMA-5000/6000 Installation ManualDigi documents:XTend (LEGACY) Prod...
Jul 06, 2017
Using Remote AT Commands to Toggle an IO on a Remote XBee ZB Radio
*  Using API mode it is possible to send AT commands from a transmitting radio to a receiving radio. This allows for module parameter registers on remote devices to be queried or set.One usefu...
Jul 06, 2017
HOW TO: Configure the DD parameter (Device Type Identifier) of a Digi XBee or XBee-PRO
The XBee / XBee-PRO DD parameter is the Device Type Identifier field, which is a proprietary AT parameter used on Digi XBee modules.DD is a 4-byte hex string, consisting of an upper and lower word,...
Jul 06, 2017
HOW TO: Install XCTU in Linux
Installation:Download the latest .run image for your specific architecture from Digi's web site:http://www.digi.com/support/productdetail?pid=3352&type=utilitiesAs a non-root user, run an X...
Jul 06, 2017
Reset Xbee Network Layer
Process to reset an Xbee Network Layer:  To reset the Xbee Network Layer we will need two things,Gateway Device ID: Found in Remote Manager -> Device Management -> Device...
Jul 06, 2017
Understanding white label on XBee module

Jul 06, 2017
Digi International Security Notice Vulnerability "GHOST"
 Digi International Security NoticeOriginally issued March 6th, 2015, updated December 18, 2015  CVE-2015-0235OverviewA critical security vulnerability, reported as CVE-2015-0235, nickna...
Jul 06, 2017
HOW TO: Find Country of Origin (CoO) for Digi-manufactured products
It is Digi's goal to facilitate and expedite worldwide trade in the most effective and efficient manner, by proactively observing all international rules and regulations regarding export. To a...
Jul 06, 2017
Polling Mode for the 9XTend Radio Modem
The polling feature on the 9XTend allows the user to poll their remotes in a controlled organized fashion. This feature may come in handy for point to multipoint systems where all of the remotes ar...
Jul 06, 2017
DIO line passing and XBee modules using Mesh
List of XBee modules supporting Mesh networking:XBee3 & XBee S2C Zigbee modulesXBee3 & XBee S2C DigiMesh modulesXBee SX 868 DigiMesh modulesXBee SX DigiMesh modules/modemsXBee Pro 900H...
Jul 06, 2017
XStream Product Manual
XStream product manual
Jul 06, 2017
DIN Rail Mount Solution for Digi
Kits are available for retrofitting radios for field installations. The PKG-DINRAIL-KIT modular interface will support wall or chassis mounting. DIN rail, or sometimes referred to as top-hat rail i...
Jul 06, 2017
Analog and Digital Sampling Using XBee Radios
XBee radios have multiple I/O lines that can be used to gather Digital or Analog data, then transmit that data to another XBee for interpretation. Because sample data is always provided in an API f...
Jul 06, 2017
Factors That Affect Range
Communication distance is determined by four factors:Output power, recieve sensitivity, Antenna systems and the environment.Visit this application note for Maximizing Range.(Also please see Di...
Jul 06, 2017
Using Digi radios in hazardous environments
Digi radios have been certified for use in Class 1 Division 1 environments by several of our customers. The radio modem was incorporated into a complete system that was then tested and certified to...
Jul 06, 2017
Using RS-485 Converters with Digi Interface Boards
Digi's XCite, XStream, and XTend serial interface radio modems are configurable using DIP switch settings to select either RS-232 or RS-485 configurations, eliminating the need for an RS-232 to RS-...
Jul 06, 2017
Wave propagation of 900 MHz vs. 2.4 GHz
Comparing Wave Propagation of 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz FrequenciesTo demonstrate the basic difference in wave propagation of 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz waves, a quick look at path loss is provided. As waves pr...
Jul 06, 2017
XBee ZigBee Route Discovery and Network Address Discovery
In ZigBee there are two important forms of discovery that allow one node to locate and send packets to another node. These two methods are called Route Discovery and Network Address Discovery.Route...
Jul 06, 2017
PWM RSSI signal - ATRP command for analog RSSI indication
Digi XStream, XTend, and XBee modules now feature an ''analog'' output of the received signal strength relative to the receiver sensitivity of the module. This output is available a...
Jul 06, 2017
Sample ZigBee or Digi Mesh network using XBee radios
In this example, a total of three XBee radios will be networked. There are some network limitations involved, but the network can support up to thousands of nodes. Adding additional nodes can be do...
Jul 06, 2017
Digi PKG Troubleshooting Questions
When working with Digi PKG (Boxed) Modems, there are some common troubleshooting steps that you can perform to help diagnose the source of the problem you are having. These are the same questions t...
Jul 06, 2017
How Increased System Gain Relates to Range
When calculating Fade Margin or performing a Link Budget Analysis, the total system gains and losses can indicate how dB relates to achievable distance. Receiver sensitivity, power output, antenna ...
Jul 06, 2017
Interference between channels
Digi XBee modules operating in 2.4GHz band (like Digi XBee3 Zigbee modules) make use of one fixed operational channel for transmission. Users operating multiple network in common vic...
Jul 06, 2017
Interfacing Digi OEM RF Modules to Microcontrollers
Digi radios are compatible with microcontrollers from a variety of vendors. For this reason, Digi does not make recommendations for choosing a specific microcontroller to interface with our radios....
Jul 06, 2017
Legacy method of performing a range testing with a ZigBee Mesh Network
This test is designed to allow the user to quickly establish a functional ZigBee Networking Range Test. While this article was originally written for a ZigBee mesh network, the same basic step...
Jul 06, 2017
Error detection and correction
Digi radio modems perform a 16-bit CRC (cyclic redundancy check) to check for errors in every transmitted data packet. If an error is found the packet is discarded and not sent out the serial port....
Jul 06, 2017
Escaped Characters and API Mode 2
Note:  API Mode 2 is often misunderstood regarding its necessity and is used very rarely.  API mode 1 is fully capable of transmitting all characters including those that can be escaped.  If you th...
Jul 06, 2017
Calculating the Checksum of an API Packet
The API operation of the radios (XTend and XBee) requires that communication through the UART or serial port of the radio be done through a structured interface where data is communicated in format...
Jul 06, 2017
Legacy recovery procedure for ZigBee XBees
This article is an all-inclusive guide for recovering a Digi ZigBee XBee that is in an unresponsive state.The steps in this article are specifically for ZigBee XBee radios. If you need to perf...
Jul 06, 2017
USB Drivers for Digi radios and modems: XBee, XTend, and XStream
Link to the current version of the Digi RF Driver Installer for all versions of Windows:ftp://ftp1.digi.com/support/driver/Digi_USB_RF_Drivers.exeFor Linux and Macintosh OS X, it's highly rec...
Jul 06, 2017
Radio Emission Designation And Modulation Type For Digi RF Radios
9XStream/9XCiteModulation Type: FSKEmission Designation: 260KF1D24XStreamModulation Type: FSKEmission Designation: 400K0F1D9XTendModulation Type: FSK (@9600 baud), GFSK (@115200 baud)Emission Desig...
Jul 06, 2017
Optimizing USB to serial port settings
Digi interface boards and USB adapters use an FTDI Chip for the USB to serial conversion. The default configuration for FTDI's drivers are optimized for high speed serial devices. Digi RF radio...
Jul 06, 2017
Why does my Xtend keep loosing its settings?
Issue: Every time I power cycle my 9xtend, I loose the settings I just wrote to the module.Cause: The radio has not been placed in "User Defined" mode.The radio has six dip switches by th...
Jul 06, 2017
XBee PRO 900 HP Product Manual
XBee PRO 900 HP product manual
Jul 06, 2017
Digi's XLR PRO and PLC's
When working with an XLR PRO and an Allen Bradley 9210 PLC, you need to configure the PLC's remote.opt file so that the DTR line is always high. That can be done by using the Command /DTR+.  Wh...
Jul 06, 2017
Zigbee Home Automation
When developing a Zigbee Home Automation application or Wanting to talk with a Zigbee Home Automation Device, the XBee module you should select is the XBee ZB SMT module or XBee ZB (Zigbee) Surface...
Jul 06, 2017
What is API (Application Programming Interface) Mode and how does it work?
API (Application Programming Interface) mode is a frame-based method for sending and receiving data to and from a radio's serial UART. The API is an alternative to the default transparent mode....
Jul 06, 2017
Streaming Video and the XLR
Using the Digi XLR PRO with a standard web cam, Digi was able to utilize the 720P HD option with a refresh rate of 15FPS. With the Samsung camera used, this setting required a throughput of 1Mbps. ...
Jul 06, 2017
I suspect a problem with the radio equipment, can I return it for repair?Digi has an extremely low product failure rate. If the Digi radio modem appears to have a problem, try restoring module...
Jul 06, 2017
The Major Differences in the XBee 802.15.4 vs. the XBee ZB (S2) and (S2C)
The two most common RF radios that are available from Digi are the 802.15.4 and ZB. The 802.15.4 and ZB modules are quite similar, but selection of a module should be based upon application specifi...
Jul 06, 2017
XBee 868/865 LP G4 Band
The XBee 868 LP (Low Power) version of the XBee modules has the ability for frequency selection. The module can be configured to use the G4 band.The G4 band uses a single frequency 869.85MHz or cha...
Jul 06, 2017
9Xtend - B Product Manual
Xtend vB (Current Version) Product Manual
Jul 06, 2017
XBee PRO 868 Product Manual
Product Manual for the XBee PRO 868 OEM module
Jul 06, 2017
XBee 868/865 LP Manual
XBee 868/865 LP Product Manual
Jul 06, 2017
Digi XLR PRO Product Manual
Digi XLR PRO Product Manual
Jul 06, 2017
Recovery procedure for XBees
This article is an all-inclusive guide for recovering a Digi XBee that is in an unresponsive state. If you are using a XBee  ZigBee (labeled S2C, S2B, S2, or Series 2), please refer to t...
Jul 06, 2017
Digital and analog sampling using XBee radios
XBee radios have multiple I/O lines that can be used to gather Digital or Analog data, then transmit that data to another XBee for interpretation. Because sample data is always provided in an API f...
Jul 06, 2017
What is an Interface board?
Digi's supplies RF modules to OEM and Integrator companies to enable wireless communication for new and existing electronic systems. The RF modules require a regulated power supply and a CMOS (...
Jul 06, 2017
XBee WIFI Product Manual
Jul 06, 2017
XBee PRO SX Product Manual
Click here for the XBee PRO SX product manual.
Jul 06, 2017
Maximum payload size for Digi RF products
When a Digi radio is being used in transparent (AT) mode, packet size is not a major concern because the data packets will be fragmented as needed. When transmitting data using API frames, it is im...
Jul 06, 2017
How to Identify and Recover a Programmable XBee
First lets described what a Programmable XBee module is and how to determine if you have one.  A Programmable XBee is an XBee module that has an additional HCS08 FreeScale 8 bit microprocessor on b...
Jul 06, 2017
Bit Masks and the SC Parameter
For the SC parameter:The selection of channels is set by use of the SC (Scan Channels) parameter.  This is a bitmask. By setting the bitmask, you can force a choice of either a range...
Jul 06, 2017
XLR PRO and Serial Communications
Most understand that the XLR PRO can be used for Ethernet Bridging.  But did you know that it also supports RS232, RS485 and RS22 communications?This is done by using the RJ 45 port between th...
Jul 06, 2017
5V interface and the XBee
Question:Do the Digi XBee modules Support 5V on any of the radios pins?Answer:No, the Digi XBee is a 3V device.  Unless otherwise stated in the manual, the Digi XBee modules do not accept 5V on any...
Jul 06, 2017
Timing Comparison For Data Transfer By Product
Timing comparisonTiming measurements are made with the radio modems in their default configuration. The measurements are made on a pair of modems performing a loop-back test. Modem A is connected t...
Jul 06, 2017
Sending data over an asynchronous network. Example of indirect messaging.
The following is a configuration example of a network of 900 HP modules or modems for a point-to-point or point-to-multi-point network using asynchronous sleep:This example has two modules; however...
Jul 06, 2017
X-CTU Doesn't Display XBee Cellular Parameters Properly
Download the current firmware that is relevant to the module(version 1005 or greater).  Save this file (.zip) to a known location.  DO NOT unzip this file!  X-CTU is looking for a .zip file.In X-CT...
Jul 06, 2017
Manually Updating X-CTU Firmware Library
Download the current firmware that is relevant to the module.  Save this file (.zip) to a known location.  DO NOT unzip this file.  X-CTU is looking for a .zip file.In XCTU, from the Help (question...
Jul 06, 2017
Sending Serial Data via Device Cloud, X2e and an Xbee
Periodically, one wants to send data from the device cloud to an XBee module connectedto a device via the XBee modules Serial port or COM port.This can be done using the default application that co...
Jul 06, 2017
XLR Ethernet Router/Repeater Bridge
How can I use the Digi XLR PRO to create an Ethernet Bridge to extend the range of a Ethernet network that is out of range of the XLR PRO?Issue:I need to cover a range of about 2 miles but I have a...
Jul 06, 2017
Intrinsic Safety Certifications
What information do I need to obtain Intrinsic safety certifications?Digi radio modems have been integrated by a number customers into products that are used in hazardous environments. For electron...
Jul 06, 2017
Power Sources for Digi Radios
You may ask yourself, What options do have have to ensure that when I loose power, my Pump, PLC, or other type of equipment may remain running and communicating during the outage.Well, that depends...
Jul 06, 2017
Antenna orientation
Occasionally we get asked, what way should my antennas face?For high gain directional antennas commonly called a Yagi, they should be pointed so that the long axis of the antenna should be pointed ...
Jul 06, 2017
How to convert an XBee PRO 900 HP to an XBee PRO XSC
In the following, you will find the steps needed to configure a 900 HP RF Modem to an XBee PRO XSC S3B 9600 or 19,200 RF Modem.We Start by connecting the RF Modem to a power source and the mini USB...
Jul 06, 2017
Why are there delays when streaming packets in broadcast mode using Zigbee?
Why do I see large delays when sending rapid Broadcast packets - using an address of 0xFFFF? Unlike unicast transmission that supports acknowledgment of data delivery to avoid unnecessary retire...
Jul 06, 2017
How to updgrade a radios firmware using XCTU-NG
This article will describe the process in which one upgrades the firmware on an existing Digi RF radio product such as the 9Xtend, or an XBee product.Step 1 - Launch XCTU. If you do not have XCTU, ...
Jul 06, 2017
Xtend Version B and Country or Regional Firmware
Can one change the firmware on a 9xtend from the U.S. version to an Australian version by simply changing the firmware?In the past, one could simply change the firmware on the radio to get it to op...
Jul 06, 2017
9Xtend and over-the-air commands
Can the standard or Peer-to-peer, Point-to-point, point-to-multi-point firmware for the 9XTend version B support over the air commands?No. The reason behind this is to hold compatibility with the o...
Jul 06, 2017
Does the standard version of 9xtend version B contain any additional API frames?
With the release of the 9XTend version B module some have asked if additional API frames have been added to the product?No, to keep with compatibility, the firmware does not contain any additional ...
Jul 06, 2017
How to Run a range test with the 9Xtend and XCTU 6x
In most cases, running a range test can be done by following the directions that come in XCTU or within the Quick Start Guides. With the 9XTend, that is not the case. This does not mean that you ca...
Jul 06, 2017
Using Digi's Applicaiton's Cluster ID's and End points on a Digi XBee
Digi ProfileProvides an overview of the ZigBee endpoint and cluster ID functionalitysupported in the Digi drop-in-networking profile.Digi XBee Profile OverviewThe Digi Drop-In-Networking ZigBee Pro...
Jul 06, 2017
LTE Cat 1 Antenna Guide
A wide variety of antennas are available for LTE. These include embeddedantennas that go inside a device's enclosure, "rubber duck" externalantennas, vehicle mounted versions, MIMO an...
Jul 06, 2017